Breeding Precautions

Breeding Precautions

No bitch should be bred from before she has finished growing, never before her second heat, and better at her third. Very few breeders will agree with the last statement, mainly because it does not fit in with the general economics of kennel management.
A good many bitches are kept intact until after this age so that they may be shown, and they are often bred from quite successfully, later even than the third season.
Prior to the time when she is expected to come into season the bitch needs regular exercise and suitable nourishment. She should remain lean and active rather than become fat and lethargic.
A bitch should be wormed a few weeks before she is due in season, and following this she should be isolated as far as possible to avoid reinfestation from worm eggs passed out in the droppings of other dogs or puppies. The dosing should be repeated between the 5th and 6th weeks following the mating. The choice of the anthelmintic is important. Your veterinary surgeon will supply a safe and effective vermicide that will not cause purging or bowel irritation. A few of the worming medicines in common use may be too drastic for use during pregnancy.
Vaccination is a matter that needs consideration in the bitch of, let us say, two or three years of age, from whom it is intended to breed, because a bitch that has been immunised as a puppy will, in two or three years, have lost her immunity unless she has been the round of shows or mixed freely with other dogs outside the kennels. But it is not worth the risk just keep the annual vaccines up to date. For the bitch and the potential puppies.
A booster dose should be given ideally at least a month before the expected time of mating.
Vaccination should not be carried out after mating, or certainly not before the 40th day of pregnancy. If for any reason it becomes absolutely necessary to vaccinate the bitch after the 40th day or at any time after this, and before the birth of her puppies, it is essential the puppies should be vaccinated with a modified live virus at the 8th week, and again at their 10th week, with an annual booster after that. The reason is that when the bitch is vaccinated during pregnancy her milk will contain antibodies that may nullify any living vaccine that can safely be injected into them. The result may then well be that the puppies will be entirely dependent upon the original antibodies in the milk, and when these diminish and disappear from the puppies’ systems they will be wide open to infection. This is why the second injection at ten weeks and the booster annually become so imperative.
If leptospiral or virus hepatitis should appear in the kennel during the period of pregnancy, the bitch should be injected against these two diseases with a killed vaccine, not with a living one. The veterinary surgeon will, of course, be quite aware of this.
Radiography, in an attempt to determine the existence or otherwise of pregnancy, may be helpful to prepare you for the amount of puppies expected and the size of the puppy might help you decide it a caesarean. Earlier diagnoses can be done with ultrasound but please be aware that it is not always possible to give you the amount of puppies.
One of the tools that is getting used more often is progesterone levels.
1. To narrow down your best mating date.
2. To get your puppy number up to as high as possible
3. To know if your bitches due day is true ( if you are planning a C section)
4. To make sure abortion is not due to low progesterone.
For more information http://familypetvet.com.au/progesterone-test/

Puppy CPR

puppy CPRThe cubic capacity of a puppy’s chest is quite small, and too heroic efforts to fill it may cause serious trouble. The lungs of the average human being are too strong to permit safe `mouth-to-mouth’ inflation of the lungs of a puppy. It is safer to employ a small-bore tube provided with a small hole in the lumen which may be covered and uncovered by the finger, with a close watch upon the amount of expansion induced. One must blow gently and at intervals of 2 to 3 seconds, allowing the puppy’s chest.

A simple blow tube may be devised by removing the ink tube, the plastic cap, and the metal tip, from an ordinary ball-point pen. The tapered end of the tube is inserted into the puppy’s mouth, and respiration is started by blowing gently through the other end. If a small hole has been made half-way down the tube into the lumen of the air passage, this may be covered and uncovered at 2 second intervals with the tip of the finger. When the ribs rise as the lungs fill, stop blowing, and wait for the chest to empty by its own elasticity.

The hole bored into the lumen of the tube acts as a safety valve against the application of too much air pressure, and it can be closed with the tip of the finger if the pressure needs increasing. The inflation is continued until respiration is completely established. When the puppy of its own volition has taken one or more gulps of air artificial respiration may be carried on by the method shown in Fig. 6.

Whenever the puppy makes an effort to breathe but needs help, this is usually the better course to adopt and, in most instances, it is successful.

To carry out the operation, the puppy is held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands, its belly facing the operator and its back turned away.

First, the head turns backwards and downwards, the hind feet simultaneously rising upwards.

After this, the hind feet turn the circle and the head comes up again.

Each full turn of the puppy should take about 3 seconds, then after a second’s rest the turning is repeated until normal breathing is restored.

It is good practice to draw the outline of a puppy on a piece of cardboard, cut it out with scissors, and transfix it on a skewer through the spot marked X. Revolve the puppy head down, tail up and so on, and become accustomed to the positions. Then try to imitate these without the skewer. This procedure is well worth learning as it saves more puppies than any other method when there is difficulty in getting them to start breathing.

Other instruments useful for inflating the lungs include a rubber car syringe, which may be bought from a chemist; a small round plastic funnel which will fit snugly over the puppy’s head. This has the advantage that when air is blown into the funnel, it travels down the puppy’s nostrils rather than directly down the trachea. In the larger breeds the cardboard central tube of a toilet roll may be placed over the head or muzzle and blown through.

The ear syringe may also be used as a feeding bottle. The puppy is forced to suck against a vacuum within the bulb of the syringe and there is no fear of choking (provided an impatient attendant does not squeeze

 

Causes of Puppy Death

dogtipsonline death in puppiesDeath in puppies may involve one or two puppies, or the complete litter. Generally speaking, the nearer the puppy is to the exit, the greater is its chance of survival, if there is nothing to retard delivery. Nevertheless, this first puppy to be born is the one least likely to survive if it is badly out of position, and especially if surgical interference is needed to effect delivery. The greatest risk, however, to the first-born results from undue panic on the part of the attendant.

If, instead of making frantic efforts at midnight to effect the delivery of a living, normal puppy before the cervix, vagina, and uterus have reached the state of readiness, the owner were to go to bed and sleep soundly until morning, he or she would probably find on awakening that the first puppy presented, as well as others, would be comfortably sucking.

In any case, a few hours’ delay in the case of the untouched and uninfected vagina will not impede the efforts of the veterinary surgeon, if his services are finally required.

The exception is when the puppy is dead, swollen and partly decomposed a very unlikely state of affair or when it is lying in such a position that it entirely precludes the possibility of normal birth. Even then, waiting a short while entails very little extra risk, provided no outside infection has been introduced by unclean fingers.

The retention of normal puppies for a few hours, within a healthy uterus, does little harm, since they are receiving oxygen and nourishment through the placenta, and have not yet inflated their lungs. Undue hurry is far more likely to be dangerous.

Now let us consider why one or more puppies should arrive dead among an otherwise strong and healthy litter. Firstly, take into consideration the size of the dead puppy. Is it a large, well-developed specimen, as usually is the case, or is it a small one, thin, shrivelled, and almost mummified?

During the early days of pregnancy it is usual for more eggs to be fertilised and implanted in the lining of the uterus preparatory to development and growth than finally survive. The defunct embryos undergo a process of resorption. As there may be insufficient time for this to be completed, the puppy is eventually delivered as a small specimen, not actually decomposed but apt to give this impression on account of its partial mummification. Sometimes it will be embedded in, or surrounded in its membranes.

When several puppies, or even the whole litter, are involved in this way, the underlying cause may have been either lack of vitamin A in the diet of the bitch at the early critical stage of embryonic development; or, alternatively, inability on the part of the bitch to make use of the vitamin A available. One reason for this may be the administration of wheat-germ oil, or vitamin E (the so-called ‘fertility hormone’) in excessive dosage. Too much vitamin E is capable of rendering the bitch unable to absorb the essential vitamin A. On the other hand, the lack of development may have been due to infection, possibly by E. coli.

There may be a variety of other causes of the death of a large, well-developed puppy prior to birth. The matter of sex may play a part since a large male has far less chance of survival during a somewhat prolonged parturition (in which uterine inertia may be involved) than a smaller female.

The other common cause is obstruction to the circulation of blood, involving an insufficient circulation of oxygen within the puppy’s bloodstream. This often results from entanglement of the umbilical cord (carrying the blood vessels) around some part of the puppy’s own body, or by its becoming imprisoned by the limbs of another puppy. Sometimes a rotation of the body of a puppy carries the cord, which is fairly long, around the abdomen, thereby diminishing or cutting off the circulation.

Another cause is that, frequently, puppies arrive in `posterior presentation’, in other words, ‘tail first’. This may apply to alternate puppies but sometimes all, or almost all, arrive in this way.

The passage of the puppy is impeded, and the bitch makes strenuous ‘forcing’ efforts to keep it moving. Fluids are then squeezed down the nostrils and open mouth of the puppy and pass into the lungs. The result is that when the puppy eventually makes an effort to breathe it fails because the lungs are full of fluid; or in other words, the puppy is drowned.

A complete litter ‘dead at birth’, from a bitch that has been watched and not neglected, and has delivered her puppies without undue effort, is often the result of infection, frequently by a virus (distemper or hepatitis possibly) or sometimes by leptospira (rodent infection?) and even by common bacteria such as E. coli, a normal inhabitant of the intestine which, in certain circumstances, may become highly virulent.

The infection may result in death of the puppies and premature birth, or they may be retained until full term and delivered dead.

 

How to Choose a Brood Bitch

How to Choose a Brood Bitch

The success of every dog-breeding project centres primarily around the brood bitch. It is desirable to breed strong healthy puppies but it is also necessary for those destined for exhibition to grow into sound animals and to conform with the requirements of an approved standard. Which would be strongly represented in the brood bitch.

It might be imagined by those who have little experience in dog breeding that all that would be necessary would be to mate a champion brood bitch with a champion dog of the same species in order to produce a champion litter.

brood bitch dog breeding

Such is far from being the case, except by a lucky chance, since to produce puppies very like themselves the blood lines of sire and brood bitch have, as breeders say, to ‘nick’, which in other words means that each carries genes complementary to the other, a not very common occurrence.

It is true that some kennels contrive to turn out a champion each year, but they are usually those that contain a number of brood bitches often similarly bred, and their owners have been fortunate enough to discover a sire that ‘nicks’, and they are sensible enough to continue for so long as may appear advisable to use the same blood lines. Even then the proportion of puppies that grow into dogs and bitches capable of holding their own in championship shows is not very high and one might well need to produce a considerable number of litters each year to enjoy any prospect of breeding one specimen capable of winning challenge certificates.

Choosing your Brood Bitch

Regarding breeding, as it is carried out on general lines rather than by established breeders, brood bitches capable of producing puppies that grow well and conform with the standard are by no means always those that have been most successful in the ring, but they are

  • Sound, Healthy, Happy
  • Active, good muscle mass and smooth joints
  • Intelligent, sharp and good temperament

A good brood bitch usually has good pedigrees behind her.

Many of those brood bitches possess some minor fault or faults, a small percentage of which will be passed on to their puppies, but certain good features, such as excellent necks and shoulders, good ribs and the right type of bone, are likely to be passed on also. They should be easy whelpers, good mothers, and possess excellent temperaments. It is true, of course, that the tendency today, now that shows are so plentiful, is to make greater use of winning dams, but in days gone by less attention was paid to the female side and far more to the sire. A winning sire, and particularly one with the requisite number of challenge certificates, will be unlikely to possess many undesirable features in conformation, but his intelligence may or may not be up to standard.

The urgent need to introduce or preserve show points may induce the breeder to overlook temperament and intelligence in the brood bitch and the sire and to produce certain litters that grow up with good conformation but possess a very low intelligence quotient, or nervous or untrustworthy dispositions. It is wise never to use such dogs as sires, and it is possible, when line breeding is aimed at, that they may have near relations not quite so close to the standard as regards conformation but with better temperaments and greater intelligence. One often produces better puppies from a near relative of the champion than from the champion himself.

Years ago it was regarded as essential to look for quality in the sire, for strength and soundness in the brood bitch, and for correct temperament in both. Today most breeders realise that these qualities should exist in both sexes, but many are apt to pay too little regard to temperament. One has always to bear in mind that one is not trying to produce a normal representative of a particular species when breeding dogs.

Brood bitch dog breeding

In no species throughout the animal kingdom are there several hundred breeds or varieties unrecognisable from their original ancestors, as there are in the dog family. Each separate breed of dog is different from all the others in a variety of characteristics, and each breed is an artificial, man-made and man-devised product that has to conform to an intricate standard entirely its own. The Chihuahua, the Great Dane, and the Alsatian have few features in common, and yet it is necessary for the breeder to retain a number of special characteristics peculiar to his own chosen breed; and when he has done this and produced a specimen typical of this created breed it is essential, if it is to win prizes, that certain combinations of artificial features shall be present in the same individual not such an easy.matter as one might imagine, but it constitutes a problem that intrigues the dedicated breeder and creates the Fancy as well as the fancier.

And where does the brood bitch come in? She contributes a half of the inheritance and, in addition, she comes in as the reservoir of all the breed features and as the factory and the milk-bar that can turn out and deliver the goods. The sire is of great importance, too, as the force that can put the operation of breeding into motion and supply an equal share of the genes that will modify the development of fractions of each member of the litter, with a hope that the combinations and permutations of genes presented by the two parents may produce a perfect specimen of the breed.

Breeding is always something of a gamble. The odds against the breeder may be reduced by a knowledge of form, the quality of the brood bitch, but there is no royal road to success. If there were, it would be the end of dog breeding.

 

Be Prepared For Dog Breeding

Be Prepared For Dog Breeding

The Number one Golden Rule.

No bitch should be bred from before she has finished growing, never before her second heat, and better at her third. Very few breeders will agree with the last statement, mainly because it does not fit in with the general economics of kennel management.

A good many bitches are kept intact until after this age so that they may be shown, and they are often bred from quite successfully, later even than the third season.

Prior to the time when she is expected to come into season the bitch needs regular exercise and suitable nourishment. She should remain lean and active rather than become fat and lethargic.

A bitch should be wormed a few weeks before she is due in season, and following this she should be isolated as far as possible to avoid reinfestation from worm eggs passed out in the droppings of other dogs or puppies. The dosing should be repeated between the 5th and 6th weeks following the mating. The choice of the worming product (anthelmintic) is important. Any veterinary surgeon will supply a safe and effective worming product that will not cause vomiting or bowel irritation. A few of the vermifuge medicines(worming products) in common use may be too drastic for use during pregnancy. In form your vet you are planning on breeding when buying the worming product.

Vaccination is very important in your breeding bitch with whom it is intended to breed. Annual vaccination is cructial and specially in breeding bitches because a bitch that has been immunised as a puppy will, in two or three years, have lost her immunity unless she has been vaccinated or exposed to all viral components in the annual vaccine in the round of shows or mixed freely with other dogs outside the kennels.

This applies principally to those bitches that have received no booster injections since their original vaccination. In such, the re-vaccination or (at the least) a booster dose should be given at least a month before the expected time of mating.

Vaccination should not be carried out after mating, or certainly not before the 4oth day of pregnancy. If for any reason it becomes absolutely necessary to vaccinate the bitch after the 4oth day or at any time after this, and before the birth of her puppies, it is essential the puppies should be vaccinated with a modified live virus at the 9th week, and again at their 15th week, with a booster at six months. The reason is that when the bitch is vaccinated during pregnancy her milk will contain antibodies that may nullify any living vaccine that can safely be injected into the puppies. The result may then well be that the puppies will be entirely dependent upon the original antibodies in the milk, and when these diminish and disappear from the puppies’ systems they will be wide open to infection. This is why the second injection at fifteen weeks and the booster at six months become so imperative.

If leptospiral or virus hepatitis should appear in the kennel during the period of pregnancy, the bitch should be injected against these two diseases with a killed vaccine, not with a living one. The veterinary surgeon will, of course, be quite aware of this.

Radiography( Xray), in an attempt to determine the existence or otherwise of pregnancy, will give you peace of mind on if your bitch is pregnant and how many puppies to expect. This usually gets done in the last week of pregnancy when the little skeletons of the puppies are completly formed and visual.

For earlier detection you should go and see a vet with skilled fingers to diagnose pregnancy between the 22nd and 29th days. About the 22nd day in the smaller breeds, and the 24th day in the larger, the miniature embryos can be felt at the pelvic brim and further forward, below the backbone, as a ‘string of beads’. A few days later, fluid will have formed around them, contained within the membranous sacs (allantois and amnion), and the beads will not be so easily felt.

If you are going for an elective Cesearian then toward the last few days of pregnancy you can have ‘progs test’ done at your vets to see if the puppies are ready. When they are they will send a hormonal signal to the bitches body to drop the progesterone level dramatically. That is the sign to organise a cesearian with your vet so you will not have to rush to the emergency vet at 4 am.